Behavior of mortars with different types of cement when induced to Delayed Ettringite Formation (DEF)
The purpose of this paper is to present an evaluation of different types of cement and the incidence of Delayed Ettringite Formation (DEF) through mortar composites cast in the laboratory and exposed to a high curing temperature over a 12-month study period. DEF represents one of the types of Internal Sulfate Attacks (ISA) related to an expansive chemical reaction that occurs inside of concrete involving the sulfates from cement. Experiments involved the assessment of expansions, compressive and tensile strengths as well as microstructural characteristics over time. It was observed that tests performed on mortars and with a specific mix required an extended evaluation period to distinguish the behaviors. Furthermore, high early-strength cement featured the worst binder when faced with DEF.
Adamopoulou, E., Pipilikaki, P., Katsiotis, M. S, Chaniotakis, M., Katsioti, M. (2011). “How sulfates and increased temperature affect delayed ettringite formation (DEF) in white cement mortars.” Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 25, pp. 3583-3590. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2011.03.051
Al Shamaa, M., Lavaud, S., Divet, L., Colliat, J.B, Nahas, G., Torrenti, J. M. (2016). “Influence of limestone filler and of the size of the aggregates on DEF.” Cement Concrete Composites, Vol. 71, pp. 175-180. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2016.05.007
Amine, Y., Leklou, N., Amiri, O. (2017). “Effect of supplementary cementitious materials (SCM) on delayed ettringite formation in heat cured concretes.” Energy Procedia, Vol. 139, pp. 565-570. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2017.11.254
Asamoto, S., Murano, K., Kurashige, I., Nanayakkara, A. (2017). “Effect of carbonate ions on delayed ettringite formation.” Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 147, pp. 221-226. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.04.107
Bronholo, J. L. (2020). Estudo do ataque individual e misto de DEF e RAA e de seus efeitos deletérios nas propriedades físico-químicas e mecânicas de concretos e argamassas de cimento Portland pozolânico e de alta resistência. Dissertação de Mestrado em Engenharia Civil – LACTEC, Curitiba, Brasil.
Collepardi, M. A. (2003). “State-of-the-art review on delayed ettringite attack on concrete.” Cement and Concrete Composites, Vol. 25, pp. 401-407. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0958-9465(02)00080-X
Divet, L., Randriambololona, R. (1998). “Delayed ettringite formation: the effect of temperature and basicity on the interaction of sulphate and C-S-H phase.” Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 28, pp. 357-363. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0008-8846(98)00006-4
Dayarathne, W. (2013). “Evaluation of the potential for delayed ettringite formation in concrete.” National Engineering Conference, Sri Lanka.
Fu, Y., Ding, J., Beaudoin, J. J. (1997). “Expansion of Portland cement mortar due to internal sulfate attack.” Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 27, pp. 1299-1306. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0008-8846(97)00133-6
Godart, B. (2017). “Pathology, Assessment and Treatment Structures Affected by Delayed Ettringite Formation.” Structural Engineering International, Vol. 27, pp. 362-369. https://doi.org/10.2749/101686617X14881932436771
Hasparyk, N. P, Kuperman, S. C., Torres, J. R. (2016). “Combined attack from ARS and DEF in the foundation.” In: Proceeding of 15º International Conference on Alkali Aggregate Reaction in Concrete – 15th ICAAR, Ed. Bernardes, H.; Hasparyk, N.P. São Paulo, 2016.
Ifsttar (2018). “Recommendations for preventing disorders due to Delayed Ettringite Formation”. Merne-la-Vallée. Technics and methods, GTI5-A, 70 pp ISBN 978-2-85782-745-0.
Leklou, N., Aubert, J. E., Escadeillas, G. (2013). “Influence of various parameters on heat induced internal sulfate attack.” European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering, Vo. 17, pp. 141-153. https://doi.org/10.1080/19648189.2012.755338
Leklou, N., Nguyen, V-H., Mounanga, P. (2017) “The effect of the Partial Cement Substitution with Fly Ash on Delayed Ettringite Formation in Heat-cured Mortars”. Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol. 21, pp. 1359-1366. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12205-016-0778-9
Martin, R.-P., Sanchez, L., Founier, B., Toutlemonde, F. (2016). “Diagnosis of AAR and DEF: Comparison of residual expansion, stiffness test and damage rating index”. International Conference on Alkali Aggregate Reaction in Concrete - ICAAR.
Melo, et al. (2011) “Influência do calor de hidratação na formação da etringita tardia (DEF) em concreto com cimento Portland pozolânico”. 53º Congresso Brasileiro do Concreto – IBRACON, Brasil.
Pavoine, A., Brunetaud, X., Divet, L. (2012). “The impact of cement parameters on Delayed Ettringite Formation.” Cement and Concrete Composites, Vol. 34, pp. 521-528. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2011.11.012
Ramlochan, T., Zacarias, P., Thomas, M. D. A., Hooton, R. D. (2003) “The effect of pozzolans and slag on the expansion of mortars cured at elevated temperature Part I: Expansive Behavior”. Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 33, 807-814. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2013.07.016
Rashidi, M., Paul, A., Kim, J. Y, Jacobs, L. J., Kurtis, K. E. (2017) “Insights into delayed ettringite formation damage through acoustic nonlinearity.” Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 95, pp. 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2017.02.004
Schovanz, D. (2019). “Estudo da formação da etringita tardia (DEF) em concretos com cimento Portland pozolânico e de alta resistência”. Dissertação de Mestrado em engenharia civil – Faculdade IMED, Passo Fundo, Brasil.
Schovanz, D., Tiecher, F., Hasparyk, N. P., Kuperman, S., Lermen, R. T. (2021). Evaluation of Delayed Ettringite Formation through Physical, Mechanical, and Microstructural Assays. ACI Materials Journal, Vol. 119, pp. 101-109. https://doi.org/10.14359/51728282
Taylor, H. F., Famy, C., Scrivener, K. L. (2001). “Delayed ettringite formation.” Cement Concrete Composites, Vol. 31, pp. 683-693. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0008-8846(01)00466-5
Termkhajornkit, P., Nawa, T., Yamashiro, Y., Saito, T. “Self-healing ability of fly ash–cement systems”. Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 31, pp. 195-203. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2008.12.009
Van Tittelboom, K., De Belie, N. (2013). “Self-healing in cementitious materials – A review.” Materials, Vol. 6, nº 6, pp. 2182-2217. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma6062182
Copyright (c) 2021 Tiecher, F., Langoski, M., Hasparyk, N.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
License in effect from September 2020
Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)
Articles published in Revista Alconpat will be Open-Access articles distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The copyright is retained by the author(s). Revista Alconpat will insert the following note at the end of the published text:
“Copyright 2021 by the authors. This work is an Open-Access article published under the terms and conditions of an International Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0)”.
You are free to:
The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms.
Under the following terms:
- Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.
- No additional restrictions — You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.
- You do not have to comply with the license for elements of the material in the public domain or where your use is permitted by an applicable exception or limitation.
- No warranties are given. The license may not give you all of the permissions necessary for your intended use. For example, other rights such as publicity, privacy, or moral rights may limit how you use the material.