Durability analysis of reinforced concrete with loading induced cracks

  • Milton Paulino Costa Junior Federal University of Espírito Santo, Brazil
  • Sayonara Maria Moraes Pinheiro Federal University of Espírito Santo, Vitória, Brazil
Keywords: durability, loading, cracking, chlorides, microscopy

Abstract

The objective of this study is to verify the relationship between the action of loads inducing cracks and the durability of reinforced concrete. Prismatic specimens were produced and for two years these samples were subjected to artificial salt spray, under the action of different types of loading and unloaded (reference), with moist curing for 7 days. Chloride penetration tests and microstructural analysis were carried out. It was observed that loading did not influence the results of chloride penetration. However, it was observed that in the micrographs and microanalysis of the cracked samples the clearer formation of deterioration products and possible microorganisms, compared to the samples that did not suffer loading.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Milton Paulino Costa Junior, Federal University of Espírito Santo, Brazil

Prof. Dr., Depto. Engenharia Civil, UFES, Vitória, ES, Brasil

Sayonara Maria Moraes Pinheiro, Federal University of Espírito Santo, Vitória, Brazil

Profa. Dra., Depto. Engenharia Civil, UFES, Vitória, ES, Brasil

References

ACI – American Concrete Institute (2016). Standard practice for curing concrete. ACI 308-2016. ACI Committee 308, 2016.

Alexander, M. G., Mackechnie, J. R., Ballim, Y. (2001), Use of durability indexes do achieve durable cover concrete in reinforced concrete structures. Materials science of concrete VI. Ed. By Sidney Mindess, Jan Skalny. Published by American Ceramic Society.

Andrade, T. (2005), Tópicos de durabilidade do concreto. Concreto: Ensino, Pesquisa e Realizações. Ed. G.C. Isaia. São Paulo: IBRACON, 2 v.Volume 2. p. 753-792.

Arya, C., Ofori-Darko, F. K. (1996). Influence of crack frequency on reinforcement corrosion in concrete. Cement and Concrete Research, v.26, No. 3, p. 345-353, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0008-8846(96)85022-8

Associação Brasileira De Normas Técnicas. (2014). NBR 6118: Projeto de estruturas de concreto – Procedimento. Rio de Janeiro.

Associação Brasileira De Normas Técnicas. (2020). NBR 16889: Concreto - Determinação da consistência pelo abatimento do tronco de cone. Rio de Janeiro.

Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas. (2015). NBR 5738: Concreto - Procedimento para moldagem e cura de corpos de prova. Rio de Janeiro.

Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas. (2018). NBR 5739: Cimento Portland - Determinação da resistência à compressão – Método de ensaio. Rio de Janeiro.

Baroghel-Bouny, V. (1994), Caractérisation dês patês de ciment et des bétons – Méthodes, analyses, interpretations. Laboratoire Central dês Ponts et Chaussés, IST – Section des publications.

Braun, V. (2003), “Influência das condições de moldagem e cura nas características do cobrimento de diversos concretos”. Dissertação de mestrado, Universidade Federal de Goiás – UFG.

Çakir, Ö., Aköz, F. (2006), Effect of curing conditions on the mortars with and without GGBFS. Construction and Building Materials. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2006.08.013

Cascudo, O. (2005), “Inspeção e diagnóstico de estrutura de concreto com problemas de corrosão da armadura”. In: Concreto: Ensino, Pesquisa e Realizações. Ed. G.C. Isaia. São Paulo: IBRACON, 2 v. Volume 2. p. 985-1016.

Cascudo, O. (1997), O controle da corrosão de armaduras em concreto: inspeção e técnicas eletroquímicas. São Paulo: Pini; Goiânia, GO: Editora UFG.

Castro, A. (2003), Influência das adições minerais na durabilidade do concreto sujeito a carbonatação. Dissertação de mestrado, Universidade de Goiás.

Cheng, A., Huang, R., Wu, J., Chen, C. (2005), Influence of GGBS on durability and corrosion behavior of reinforced concrete. Materials Chemistry and Physics, v. 93, p. 404–411. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matchemphys.2005.03.043

Crauss, C. (2010), Penetração de cloretos em concretos com diferentes tipos de cimento submetidos a tratamento superficial. Dissertação de mestrado, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria-RS.

Dedavid, B. A., Gomes, C. I., Machado, G. (2007), Microscopia eletrônica de varredura: aplicações e preparação de amostras - materiais poliméricos, metálicos e semicondutores. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, 60 p.

Figueiredo, C. R., Nepomuceno, A. A. (2004), Influência da absorção na carbonatação de estruturas de concreto in loco. 46º Congresso Brasileiro do Concreto, Florianópolis. Anais... São Paulo: IBRACON, v. 1.

Figueredo, E. P. (2005), “Efeitos da carbonatação e de cloretos no concreto. Concreto: Ensino, Pesquisa e Realizações”. Ed. G.C. Isaia. São Paulo: IBRACON, Volume 2. p. 829-856.

Fortes, L. C., Andrade, J. C. (1995), Corrosão na Armadura do Concreto Armado: Influência dos Agentes Cloretos e da Carbonatação. ASTEF - Associação Técnico-Científica Engenheiro Paulo de Frontin. URL: http://www.electus.com.br/usuarios/lyttelto/InfluAgClorCarb/Influ_index.htm

François, R., Castel, A., Vidal, T., Vu, N. A. (2006), Long term corrosion behavior of reinforced concrete structures in chloride environment. J. Phys. IV France 136, 285–293. https://doi.org/10.1051/jp4:2006136029

Furnas, E. L. C. (1997), Concreto massa estrutural projetado e compactado com rolo: ensaios e propriedades. São Paulo: Pini.

Ghali, A., Favre, R. (1994), “Concrete Structures: Stresses and Deformations”. E&FN Spon, an imprint of Chapman & Hall, 2-6 Boundary Row, London SE1 8HN, UK, second edition.

Ghosh, S. N. (2002), “Advances in cement technology: Chemistry, Manufacture and Testing”. Second Edition, published by Tech Books International, New Delhi, India.

Hearn, N., Figg, J. (2001), Transport mechanisms and damage: Current issues in permeation characteristics of concrete. Materials science of concrete. Ed. By Jan Skalny, American Ceramic Society. v. VI, p.327-376.

Helene, P. R. L. (1997), Vida útil das estruturas de concreto armado. In: IV Congresso Íberoamericano de Patologia das Construções. VI Congresso de Controle de Qualidade – COMPAT 97. Anais... Porto Alegre: Departamento de Engenharia Civil – UFRS, p. 1-30.

Helene, P., Diniz, J. Z. (2001), Durabilidade e vida útil das estruturas de concreto. 43º Congresso Brasileiro de Concreto. Curso de durabilidade. 18 a 23 de agosto de 2001, Foz do Iguaçu – PR.

Helmuth, R., Stark, D. (1992), Alkali-silica reactivity mechanisms. Materials Science of Concrete III. Ed. By Jan Skalny. American Ceramic Society, USA.

Illston, J. M. (1994), Construction Materials – Their nature and behaviour. 2ª ed. London – UK: E & FN SPON, 518p.

Irassar, E. (2004), Hormigón: Naturaleza y Propiedades. Hormigones Especiales – XV. Reunión Técnica Ing. Marcelo Wainsztein, Asociación Argentina de Tecnología del hormigón. Santa Fe, 21 al 24 de octubre de 2004.

Ismail, M., Gagné, R., François, R., Toumi, A. (2006), Measurement and modeling of gas transfer in cracked mortars. Materials and Structures, v. 39, p. 43–52, https://doi.org/10.1617/s11527-005-9025-4

Jucá, T. R. P. (2002), “Avaliação de cloretos livres em concretos e argamassas de cimento Portland pelo método de aspersão de solução de nitrato de prata”. Dissertação mestrado, Universidade Federal de Goiás. Goiânia, Brasil.

Khatib, J. M., Hibbert, J. J. (2005), Selected engineering properties of concrete incorporating slag and metakaolin. Construction and Building Materials, v. 19 460–472, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2004.07.017

Kim, M. Y., Yang, E. I., Yi, S. T. (2013), Application of the colorimetric method to chloride diffusion evaluation in concrete structures. Construction and Building Materials, v. 41, p. 239-245, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2012.11.084

Konin, A., Franfois, R., Arliguie, G. (1998), Analysis of progressive damage to reinforced ordinary and high performance concrete in relation to loading. Materials and Structures/Matériaux et Constructions, v. 31, p. 27-35, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02486411

Lawrence, C. D. (2006), Physiochemical and Mechanical Properties of Portland Cements. Lea’s Chemistry of Cement and Concrete. Ed. By Peter C Hewlett. Elsevier Butterworth Heinemann, USA.

Martins, A. R. (2001), Efeito da cura térmica e de cimento com escória granulada de alto-forno na durabilidade do concreto de cobrimento. Dissertação mestrado, Universidade Estadual de Campinas-SP.

Mehta, P. K., Monteiro, P. J. M. (2008), “Concreto: microestrutura, propriedades e materiais”. 3ª Edição, São Paulo: IBRACON.

Mehta, P. K., Monteiro, P. J. M. (2014), Concreto. Microestrutura, propriedades e materiais. 2 ed. São Paulo: IBRACON, 751 p.

Midness, S., Young, J. F. (1981), Concrete. Prentice-Hall, INC. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey – USA.

Montgomery, D. C. (1991), Design and Analysis of Experiments. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Real, L. V., Oliveira, D. R. B., Soares, T., Medeiros, M. H. F. (2015), Método colorimétrico por aspersión de nitrato de plata para la evaluación de la penetración de cloruros en concreto: estado del arte. Revista ALCONPAT, 5(2), 149 - 159. https://doi.org/10.21041/ra.v5i2.84

Ribas Silva, M. (1996), Climates and biodeterioration of concrete. Durability of building materials & components 7. Volume one – Prediction, degradation & materials. Edited by Christer Sjostrom. Published by E & FN Spon. Chapman & Hall, London, UK.

Richardson, I. G. (1999). The nature of C-S-H in hardened cements. Cement and Concrete Research, v. 29, p. 1131–1147, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0008-8846(99)00168-4

Sarkar, S. L., Aimin, X., Jana, D. (2001), Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-Ray microanalysis of concrete. Handbook of analytical techniques in concrete science and technology: Principles, techniques and applications. Construction and Building Materials, USA, Ed. By V. S. RAMACHANDRAN, J. J BEAUDOIN.

Taylor, H. F. W. (1997), “Cement Chemistry”. 2nd Edition. Published by Thomas Telford.

Vidal, T., Castel, A., Francois, R. (2004), Analyzing crack width to predict corrosion in reinforced concrete. Cement and Concrete Research, v. 34, p. 165–174.

Vidal, T., Castel, A., François, R. (2007), Corrosion process and structural performance of a 17 year old reinforced concrete beam stored in chloride environment. Cement and Concrete Research, 37 (11), p. 1551–1561. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2007.08.004

Regourd, M. (1980), Structure and behavior of slag Portland cement hidrates. In: International Congress on the Chemistry of Cement, 7Th. Proceedings. Paris.

Richardson, I. G. (1999). The nature of C-S-H in hardened cements. Cement and Concrete Research, v. 29, p. 1131–1147, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0008-8846(99)00168-4

Romano, F. S. (2009), Estudo do ingresso de cloretos em concretos localizados no litoral norte do Rio Grande do Sul. Dissertação Mestrado. Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul-RS.

Silvestro, L., Romano, F. S., Dal Molin, D. C. C. (2021), Penetração de cloretos em concretos expostos em zona de atmosfera marinha por um período de 9 anos. Ambiente Construído, Porto Alegre, v. 21, n. 1, p. 101-118, https://doi.org/10.1590/s1678-86212021000100496

Song, H., Lee, C., Ann, K. Y. (2008), Factors influencing chloride transport in concrete structures exposed to marine environments. Cement & Concrete Composites. v. 30, p. 113–121, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2007.09.005

Taylor, H. F. W. (1997), Cement Chemistry. 2nd Edition. Published by Thomas Telford.

Thomaz, E. (2005), Execução, controle e desempenho das estruturas de concreto. Concreto: Ensino, Pesquisa e Realizações. Ed. G.C. Isaia. São Paulo: IBRACON, 2 v, volume 1. p. 527-582.

Vidal, T., Castel, A., Francois, R. (2004), Analyzing crack width to predict corrosion in reinforced concrete. Cement and Concrete Research, v. 34, p. 165–174, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0008-8846(03)00246-1

Vidal, T., Castel, A. François, R. (2007), Corrosion process and structural performance of a 17 year old reinforced concrete beam stored in chloride environment. Cement and Concrete Research, v. 37, p. 1551–1561, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2007.08.004

Kurdowski, W. (2014), Cement and Concrete Chemistry. Springer, Dordrecht, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-7945-7

Hai-Long, W., Jian-Guo, D., Xiao-Yan, S., Xiao-Long Z. (2016), Characteristics of concrete cracks and their influence on chloride penetration. Construction and Building Materials, v. 107, p. 216-225. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2016.01.002

Published
2021-05-01
How to Cite
Costa Junior, M. P., & Moraes Pinheiro, S. M. (2021). Durability analysis of reinforced concrete with loading induced cracks. Revista ALCONPAT, 11(2), 17 - 37. https://doi.org/10.21041/ra.v11i2.510